Independent scholar, cat addict, tattoo lover

researching public

We witness a rise of participative research in a broad range of academic disciplines. Moreover, the link between citizens’ participation in research and their participation in consequent policy making is being made. In the well-known ladder of participation in policy making, Arnstein (1969) distinguishes between manipulation, therapy (both forms of non-participation), informing, consultation, placation (three forms of tokenism), and partnership, delegated power and citizen control (three forms of citizen power).